Constitutional order. – According to Act-Test-Centers, the country was organized on a Soviet model. The supreme power is in a parliament (Great Khuruldan) elected by universal suffrage by citizens of both sexes and over the age of 18. This assembly must meet at least once a year and alone has the power to make changes to the constitution. From its bosom 30 members are elected who form the “Executive Committee” (Little Khuruldan), which is responsible, before the parliament, for its work. Five members are chosen from the Executive Committee to direct a department in which the entire central administration is centralized. The ancient subdivision of the country into 5 aimaq it was modified by decree of January 6, 1931, according to which the whole country was divided into 13 economic-administrative units also called aimaq and comprising 324 somons. Each somon comprises multiple horins. The Kobdo aimaq also includes, exceptionally, 3 national khosh ū n, divided into 10 somons, inhabited by a predominantly Kalmyk population. Each aimaq, like our provinces, has a capital in which its political and economic life is centralized.

Here is the name of the aimaq (capital in brackets): 1. Durbet (Ulankom); 2. Kobdo (Dzhargalantu); 3. Koso-gol (Khatkhil); 4. Dzapkhan (Dzhibkhalantu); 5. Altai (Khan-Taishiri); 6. AraKhangai (Tsetseriik); 7. Ubur-Khangai (Tui); 8. Agricultural Aimaq (Altan-Bulaq); 9. Central Aimaq (Ulān-Bātor Khoto); 10. Southern Gobi (Delgir-Khangai); 11. Eastern Gobi (Sair-Usu); 12. Kentei (Undurkhan); 13. Eastern Aimaq (Bain-Tumen).

Trade. – Trade is insignificant and has become even more so after the repressive measures adopted by the Mongolian government against the Chinese, who previously had a monopoly on it. The exchanges take place with Russia and China; in recent years more with the first than with the other: which is explained by the recent establishment by the government of the Central Mongolian Cooperative Society (Moncencop) which practically controls and directs all trade in the country, is backed by Soviet capital and has Russian and Buryat personnel. Russia mainly buys cattle, skins, wools, horsehair in Mongolia and imports cotton, sugar, flour, various objects and utensils. China imports cattle (rams, horses and camels), timber, deer antlers, skins, furs and salt; it exports considerable quantities of tea compressed into tablets, tobacco, silk, religious objects. In summary: exports mainly include animals and animal products; imports of agricultural and processed products. In 1930 8770 tons were exported from the country. of wool, 1,200,000 pigs, 2,000,000 sheep. The center of trade with Russia is Kiakhta, the one with China is mainly carried out through Dolon-nōr and Kökö Khoto.

Communications. – Until the planned Urga-Chita railway is built, Outer Mongolia will know no other means of communication than the traditional ones (horses and camels) and the recently introduced automobile. Two-wheeled carts pulled by horses, oxen, yaks or camels are used for transport; the use of trucks is made possible by the flat nature of the country, but greatly hampered by the lack of oil.

Traffic takes place on roads, almost all of which are caravans. The main one, the official one, starts from Khalgan and for Khara-muren goes up to Urga and Kiakhta (1685 km.); a branch that branches off at Sair-Usu reaches Uliassutai and Kobdo, reaches the Russian border (2850 km.) and continues further through the Bukhtarma valley. A postal route (850 km.) Connects Urga to Uliassutai, for Zagatuseu and Baisakhlin. Other caravan roads cross the country, almost all from north-west to south-east and on all of them there is a more or less active traffic. Since 1917, during the summer, a regular trucking service connects Khalgan to Urga (1900 km) with a trip of about 3 days.

River routes have also begun to be exploited; in fact, steam services have already been established on the Selenga and Orkhon.

Postal services are carried out by horse-drawn courier using the urton system, exchange points or stations located on the most important traffic routes at a distance of 30-40 km. one from the other, where horses and correspondence are exchanged. With the urton horses you can do from 100 to 200 km. per day, depending on the circumstances. Recent is the telegraph, which for now connects Urga to Altin Balkh, Khalgan, Kobdo and Kiakhta. In Urga there is also the only radio station in the country, whose operation is in the hands of the Russians. Finally, an airline connects Urga to Verkhne Udinsk (450 km.).

Finances. – We have some official figures that can give an idea of ​​the trend of the public budget in the new Mongolian state; these figures show an improvement from 1923 onwards:

The main asset is made up of customs duties. There is also a monopoly on spirit and fermented beverages (vodka and kumiss, mainly) prepared in state establishments. The Mongolian Bank, a state body founded in 1924 with capital (175,000 Mexican dollars, then raised to 3 million) supplied half by the Russians who have the management in hand, has a monopoly on the issue and that of all remittances, external and internal.

In 1925, the current monetary system in use in the Mongolian state was introduced. The unit is the tugeriq, a silver coin containing 20 grams of pure metal, the value of which was arbitrarily equalized to that of the Mexican dollar, although it contains 23 grams. of silver. The tugeriq consists of 100 mung copper. There is no mint: tugeriq, mung and banknotes are made in Moscow.

I struction. – The attention of the Mongolian government has turned in particular to education, the first monopoly of the religious, who knew the Tibetan script and only some the Mongolian one. Many schools are now in operation, where the national language and script has been brought into vogue. Very important is the veterinary school of Urga. Many indigenous people have also been sent to study abroad (mainly in Moscow, some few in Berlin and Paris).

The Mongolian Soviet Republic

The Mongolian Soviet Republic
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