According to andyeducation, scientific and educational institutions in Russia were connected to the all-European “republic of scientists” even in the time of Peter the Great. In Russia, such representatives of the European scientific elite of the 18th century as L. Euler or A.L. Schlozer. And the research and scientific and social activities of M. V. Lomonosov, his works in the field of chemistry, physics, technology, and poetics became a whole era in the history of the rooting of scientific thought and creativity in Russia in the 19th and early 20th centuries. marked the rapid growth of the educational system and educational institutions, designed for a long-term process of involving huge masses of the population of different estates, classes and ethnic origins in educational processes – these are universities, institutes, a network of spiritual, military and art higher educational institutions, a secondary school (which included ” classical” and “real” directions,

From the end of the 1860s. In Russia, a system of higher education for women began to take shape. This process of formation of a huge array of Russian intelligentsia played an important role in the development of the economic and cultural potential of the country, but at the same time was a powerful factor in the revolutionization of the entire social and ideological image of Russian society, since the content and dynamics of modern knowledge, technology and ideas turned out to be in blatant contradiction with the fundamental the principles of the autocratic-notional organization of the state and society. The very concept of the intelligentsia (as a cultural array associated with modern, rationalistic forms of knowledge) has thawed since the beginning of the 70s. an implicit synonym for political opposition.

In the sciences of the humanities, Russian historians worked on the development of forms of statehood in the specific conditions of national culture (N.M. Karamzin, S.M. Solovyov, etc.), the influence of relations of power and property in the countryside on the dynamics of social development (N.I. Kareev, V.O. Klyuchevsky, V.I. Semevsky, P.G. Vinogradov), the  history of Russian culture and social thought (G.V. Plekhanov, M.O. Gershenzon, R.V. Ivanov-Razumnik and others). Lawyers worked on the problem of humanization of the legal sphere (V.D. Spasovich, A.F. Koni, E.N. Trubetskoy and others); philologists – on the study of the basic meanings and structures of language and verbal creativity (A.A. Potebnya, A.N. Veselovsky, M.B. Eikhenbaum, etc.).

The contribution of Russian technologists to electrical engineering, aeronautics, radio engineering, railway engineering, and the theory of shipbuilding is generally recognized. At the end of the 19th – beginning of the 20th centuries. the successes of domestic scientists, naturalists and humanists, were recognized by the scientific community of the West – numerous translations of monographs and articles, citation, awarding honorary degrees, two Nobel Prizes – to I.P. Pavlov for his works on the physiology of blood circulation and digestion (1904) and I.I. Mechnikov for his work on gerontology (1908). With all the painful costs of the revolution associated with the Civil War, famine, terror, anti-intellectualism and arbitrariness of the authorities, the mass exodus of scientists abroad, the post-October period was also characterized by the expansion and massification of educational institutions and the social base of science.

The Soviet period in the history of science and education in Russia was characterized by the expansion and branching of the entire system of institutions of intellectual activity in the country (except for the almost complete destruction of educational systems associated with Orthodoxy and other religions). The very structure of the organization of science of this period was characterized by the development of three main areas of scientific activity: academic science, focused mainly on fundamental research within the framework of the Russian Academy of Sciences (AN USSR) and its institutes, as well as branch academies (VASKhNIL, AMS, Academy of Architecture, etc.); university science, which operated within the departments of universities and educational institutions, was closely connected with educational processes and was a powerful reserve for the education and numerical growth of the country’s scientific personnel; branch science,

During the 1930s – the 1st floor. 1950s part of the branch of science, mainly related to defense issues, developed in unnatural conditions for scientific activity “sharag”, i.e. secret institutes and design bureaus that were in the prison regime, serviced by forced scientists. The connection between these three main directions of the then scientific activity was insufficient and was blocked by numerous ideological, bureaucratic and corporate barriers. In addition, the system of “three sciences” partly blocked contacts between the areas of pioneering scientific research and university education, as well as interregional ties between Soviet scientists. However, all three areas have made a huge contribution to the overall intellectual potential, economy and defense of the country. The goals of modernizing Soviet society were also served by the development of all levels of education in the country: universities, workers’ schools (established in 1918), universal primary education (attempts to universal secondary education were unsuccessful), vocational schools, technical schools, evening and correspondence education systems. The first years of Soviet power were characterized by the development of schools at all levels in national languages, but already from the 1930s. the system of national schools began to be gradually curtailed. At the end of the Soviet period, there were about 5 million university students in the USSR studying full-time, evening and correspondence forms (for comparison: by the beginning of the autumn-winter semester of 1914–15, there were 127.4 thousand students in the Russian Empire, not counting the territories of the Kingdom of Poland and Finland).

Education of Russia

Science and Culture of Russia
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