The development of science is planned by the Government Committee for Science and Technology. The State Council for Scientific and Technical Research deals with the problems of introducing the achievements of science into economic practice. Financial assistance from the state is received by public associations and societies – the Pakistan Association for the Development of Science, the Pakistan Academy of Sciences, etc.
Agricultural sciences, biology, medicine, geology, certain areas of chemistry and physics are of priority importance for scientific research. Pakistan has achieved some success in space research, nuclear energy and military technology. The Committee for the Study of the Upper Atmosphere and Outer Space (SUPARCO) is actively operating. In January 2003, the Paksat-1 communications satellite was launched.
The Government Atomic Energy Commission in Islamabad is responsible for the Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology (which has a research nuclear reactor), created with the help of the United States. The military program in the nuclear and missile fields was carried out by the Research Laboratory in Kahuta (near Islamabad) and the Pakistan Atomic Research Corporation. In 2001 they were merged into the Nuclear Defense Complex.
In May 1998, Pakistan, following India, conducted a series of underground nuclear weapons tests. A moratorium has been declared on further testing. At the same time, work continues to improve the means of delivering nuclear weapons with the help of missiles. Pakistan has tactical and ballistic missiles that use liquid and solid fuels. In 2003, the Ghori missile with a range of up to 1500 km was successfully tested.
According to educationvv, the main centers of education, science, and culture are the largest universities, among them the oldest, founded in 1882, Punjab University in Lahore, Qaid-e-Azam University in Islamabad, Karachi University, Sindh University in Jamshoro, Peshawar University, and others. is given to economic, socio-political and religious-humanitarian knowledge. The International Islamic University built with the help of Saudi Arabia operates in Islamabad. Islamic studies departments exist in most higher education institutions.
The sphere of culture is closely connected with education and the humanities. The most developed literature. Among the classics are the outstanding poet and philosopher Muhammad Iqbal (1877-1938), who wrote in Urdu and Persian, as well as Josh Malihabadi (1938-82) and Faiz Ahmad Faiz (1911-84). A significant contribution to the development of literature in Urdu and the languages of Sindhi, Punjabi, Pashto, Baluchi was made by such authors as A.N. Kasmi, S.H. Manto, A.A. Matin, Sh.M. Ayaz, M. Niyazi, F. Zaman, A. Khattak, A. Jamaldini and others.
The visual arts enjoy considerable public attention. The most famous artists are representatives of the school of traditionalists Abdur Rahman Chugtai (1897-1975) and modernists – Sadekyain (1930-86). A. Bakhsh, Sh. Ahmed, Sh. Ali and others also belong to the number of major artists of various styles.
Musical culture is unique. Instrumental classical music does not find distribution. Folk and professional music of the oral tradition is popular.
There are many architectural monuments from different eras. Most of them belong to the eras of the Delhi Sultanate and the local dynasties of the Punjab and Sindh (13th-15th centuries) and the Mughal Empire (16th-18th centuries). The most notable are the Lahore Fort, the tomb of Jehangir and the Shalimar gardens in Lahore, the Shah Jehan mosque in Thatta (Sindh), the mausoleum of Rukn-i-Alam in Multan, the mausoleum of Lal Qalandar in Sehvan (Sindh). A notable attraction is the mausoleum of M.A. Jinn in Karachi.
Among the museums stand out the National in Islamabad, Lahore and Peshawar museums, founded in con. 19 – beg. 20th century, Karachinsky (since 1950). There are St. 5 thousand libraries, most at educational institutions. The largest public libraries are the Punjab Public Libraries in Lahore. Liaqat Ali Khan in Karachi, National in Islamabad. The National Archives is located in the capital of the country.
The press is rich and varied. The largest newspapers in English are Dawn (Karachi), News (Islamabad), Nation (Lahore), Frontier Post (Peshawar). The most popular newspaper in Urdu is Jang. The newspaper “Nava-i Vaqt” is influential. Most of the books are published in Urdu and Sindhi.
Cinema is very popular. More than 100 feature films in local languages are released annually and 60-80 films are imported.
Theatrical art is almost not developed. Dramatic performances are staged mainly by order of television.
General information about Pakistan
The official name is the Islamic Republic of Pakistan. Located in the southern part of Asia. The area is 796 thousand km2 (according to other sources – 804-806 thousand km2), the population is 147.7 million people. (2002). The official language is Urdu, the official language is English. The capital is Islamabad (529 thousand people, according to the 1998 census). Public holidays – Independence Day on August 14 (since 1947), Pakistan Day on March 23 (since 1956). The monetary unit is the Pakistani rupee.
Controls part of the former Principality of Jammu and Kashmir, consisting of Azad Kashmir (Free Kashmir), an area of 13.3 thousand km2, and the Northern Territories, an area of 72.5 thousand km2.
Member of the UN (since 1947), Commonwealth (since 1947), OIC (since 1970), Non-Aligned Movement (since 1979), SAARC (since 1985), ECO (since 1985), IBRD, IMF, ADB, Islamic Development Bank, WTO and others.