Fulton County, located in the west-central part of the state of Illinois, USA, is a region distinguished by its diverse geography, rich history, and agricultural heritage. Encompassing an area of approximately 883 square miles, the county offers a unique blend of rolling prairies, fertile farmland, rivers, and lakes. In this comprehensive overview, we will explore the geography, climate, rivers, lakes, and other notable features that define Fulton County. Check acronymmonster to learn more about the state of Illinois.


Fulton County is situated in the west-central part of Illinois, bordered by the counties of Peoria, Mason, Schuyler, McDonough, and Knox. The county seat and largest city, Lewistown, serves as the central hub of commerce and administration, while other notable communities include Canton, Farmington, and Havana.

The landscape of Fulton County is characterized by its diverse terrain, ranging from rolling prairies and agricultural plains to wooded hills and river valleys. The county is part of the Illinois River Valley, a fertile agricultural region known for its productive farmland and scenic beauty.

The county is intersected by several major highways, including U.S. Route 24, which runs east-west through the county, and Illinois Route 97, which traverses the county from north to south. These transportation routes provide access to the county’s communities and attractions and serve as important conduits for travel and commerce.


Fulton County experiences a humid continental climate, characterized by four distinct seasons and moderate precipitation throughout the year. The region’s climate is influenced by its location in the interior of the United States and the prevailing weather patterns of the Midwest.

Summer temperatures in Fulton County typically range from the 70s to 80s°F (21-27°C), with occasional heatwaves pushing temperatures into the 90s°F (32°C) or higher. Humidity levels can be high during the summer months, particularly during periods of warm, moist air masses.

Winters in Fulton County are cold, with average temperatures ranging from the 20s to 30s°F (-6 to -1°C). Snowfall is common, especially in the northern parts of the county, where several inches of snow can accumulate during winter storms. Residents and visitors alike enjoy outdoor activities such as sledding, skiing, and ice fishing during the winter months.

Spring and fall offer mild, pleasant weather conditions in Fulton County, with temperatures gradually warming in the spring and cooling in the fall. These transitional seasons are favored by residents and visitors alike for outdoor activities such as hiking, biking, and exploring the region’s natural beauty.

Rivers and Lakes:

Fulton County is blessed with an abundance of rivers, creeks, and lakes, which play integral roles in the region’s ecology, economy, and recreation.

The primary river flowing through Fulton County is the Illinois River, which forms the western border of the county and serves as an important transportation corridor and waterway. The river supports diverse aquatic habitats and provides opportunities for fishing, boating, and other water-based activities.

Several smaller rivers and creeks also meander through Fulton County, draining into the Illinois River and its tributaries. These watercourses provide habitats for aquatic species, support riparian vegetation, and offer opportunities for outdoor activities such as kayaking, canoeing, and picnicking.

In addition to its rivers and creeks, Fulton County is home to several lakes and reservoirs, including Banner Marsh State Fish and Wildlife Area and Spring Lake. These bodies of water provide opportunities for boating, fishing, swimming, and picnicking, attracting residents and visitors alike to their shores.

Natural Resources:

Fulton County is rich in natural resources, including fertile farmland, forests, and mineral deposits, which support a variety of ecosystems and economic activities.

The county’s agricultural sector is a cornerstone of its economy, with fertile soils and a favorable climate conducive to farming. The county’s farmers produce a variety of crops, including corn, soybeans, wheat, and hay, as well as livestock such as cattle, hogs, and poultry. Agriculture plays a vital role in the region’s economy, providing jobs, income, and food for local and global markets.

Fulton County also contains valuable forest resources, including hardwood and softwood forests, which provide habitat for wildlife, recreational opportunities, and timber resources for lumber, paper production, and other wood products. The county’s forests are managed sustainably to ensure their long-term health and productivity.

Mineral resources such as coal, limestone, and shale are found in Fulton County, supporting mining and quarrying operations that provide raw materials for construction, manufacturing, and other industries. While mining activity has declined in recent decades, the industry continues to play a role in the county’s economy and infrastructure.


Fulton County, Illinois, offers a diverse array of geographical features, climate patterns, and natural resources that contribute to its unique character and appeal. From its rolling prairies and fertile farmland to its meandering rivers and tranquil lakes, the county boasts a wealth of opportunities for outdoor recreation, economic development, and cultural enrichment. As stewards of this remarkable landscape, residents and visitors alike are entrusted with the responsibility of preserving and protecting Fulton County for future generations to enjoy. Through sustainable practices, conservation efforts, and a commitment to environmental stewardship, Fulton County will continue to thrive as a vibrant and cherished part of west-central Illinois.

Geography of Fulton County, Illinois
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