Oled LED Pmoled Amoled

led lighting oled, passive, active amoled pmoled

LEDs are used for years in the electronics industry. They are used in digital clock and indicate that the computer is on, also used in toys. This led 5 mm type was invented in 1962 by Nick Holonyak Jr. (born 1928), then a consultant at the lab of General Electric Company “second according to 1,000 Lights 40 page book. In fact it was a diode driver theoretically flawed because not only drove the energy, but turned part of it into light. There is a Nebula over it that exactly on the same date, was recorded the same phenomenon in Japan. However virtually all the inventions in the area of lighting are attributed to GE.

But only after 2,000 that the use of this material had increased, extending from lighting fixtures to superfinas TV screens, mobile lighting of nightclubs. The LED has multiplied and is just the beginning.

The acronym LED, in a free translation, means led (Light-Emitting Diode). LEDs are semiconductor diodes that have basically the property of transforming electrical energy into light, different from conventional lamps using metal filaments, ultraviolet radiation and discharge of gases, among others.

According to Mbakecheng, an LED is composed of two materials, a positively charged called P-type material and other negatively, N-type material. When electrical current passes through these materials, and the light reactions occur is issued. The transformation of electrical energy into light is made in this area and therefore it is called solid state lighting (Solid-State Lighting).

Led – semiconductor chip that transforms electrical energy into light. Is the most important part of the set. Its efficiency, stability and durability, color varies according to the model and manufacturer.

COLLIMATOR-acrylic optics that converges the bright light with two goals, greater use of light source and using the led lighting. There are some related general lighting, using collimator, for example the led Ribbon.

Source – also known as driver, is responsible for the power supply of the LED. Receives the energy at mains voltage (127V or 220V) and sends it to the exact current chip for your correct working it wont be low voltage direct current 12V DC, 24V DC. Can be integrated with the lamp body or not. Today there are leds that can be connected directly to mains voltage, such as ribbons, cords and hose. It is important to note that this is a serial connection which makes lower nominal voltage in high voltage tape should pay attention that the markup is in metro subway, while the 12V is every 10 cm and allows for more flexibility. Even linking directly you need a capacitor for power factor correction that usually comes along with the equipment. With this type of equipment and can reduce costs, but there is no stabilization or cut-off System (which turns off before burning in case of abnormalities), and in the case of sensitive electronic equipment if you are in an unstable network that offers peak can burn easily, another problem is that as the connection in series, burn only an led burn, will delete that entire circuit at once. Is indicated for low durability applications like strings of Christmas.

SINK-is responsible for dissipating the heat produced by the chip, keeping the temperature of the system on a stable level. High power lamps account even cooler (fan), in order to keep the temperature in the correct range. The higher the temperature, the faster will be your’s depreciation of the luminous flux.

The led is always monochrome, emits light in a spectrum your very precise, and depending on your composition can take on a different color. Including there is even UV ultraviolet led. But the white light is a mixture of all the spectra. So there are two ways of producing white light led. A are three led RGB (red/green/blue) combine to produce white light, but this mixture has to have a very precise tuning and this type of technology can’t achieve a good IRC (color rendering index) is used for dynamic lighting. There is another way to produce white light led, it uses the principle of phosphor excited fluorescent’s. It is called the blue, is a blue led that gets into your collimator (acrylic optical system) a treatment of trifósforo powder, getting excited with radiation exactly on track being emitted and answer in the form of white light. The quality of this powder is that the secret to a good IRC and the color temperature that is taking over! This type of equipment is suitable for architectural lighting.

LED 5 mm-today there are countless variations of formats of leds on the market, but in general we have the line 5 mm that are not suitable for lighting, are for signage, electronic toys, Christmas decorations, they have low efficiency reach 40 lumens per watt maximum , are to be seen, do not illuminate. The IRC is less than 60%. Although there is line of complete lamps on the market with this technology and low cost, but they offer a bad consumer experience, did you replace on various parameters the original lamp that they replace.


LED SMD-SMD led include piranha is that scooter used in Ribbon, are quite common 5050 sizes and 3228 as superiors and suitable for lighting. Each time it comes smaller sizes and higher quality. And has already been adopted for other applications, such as image panels.

SUPER LED – is actually the SMD led, this term was a marketing ploy to differentiate the 5 SMD led, this type of led can also be mounted with the collimator.

We have the COB led which is already increasingly present on the market, is an led made under direct injection in chip, without welding, it can be any size or power, the great difficulty is to get good dissipation, we have observed some problems of durability, but is undoubtedly the trend the led is heading. In the class of future technologies we address new technologies of led icomuns more.

It’s worth pointing out some benefit, the led is resistant to impact and vibration, there is no filament that can blow, soon is great for automotive application, amusement park, etc. For being a monochromatic light emission actually GO and UV are negligible due to extremely low levels. Excellent to outstanding applications of artworks, silk, wool, chocolate.

The OLEDs are solid state devices composed of thin films of organic molecules that create light with the application of electricity. The OLEDs can provide sharper and brighter displays in electronic devices and use less power than light-emitting diodes (LEDs) or conventional liquid crystal displays (LCDs) used currently. Another very interesting feature is that are flexible, imagine a TV or lamp that you can fold or wrap.

The OLEDs are solid state devices composed of thin films of organic molecules that create light with the application of electricity. The OLEDs can provide sharper and brighter displays in electronic devices and use less power than light-emitting diodes (LEDs) or conventional liquid crystal displays (LCDs) used currently. Another very interesting feature is that are flexible, imagine a TV or lamp that you can fold or wrap.

As the LED, OLED is a solid-state semiconductor device with thickness of 100 to 500 nanometers which is approximately 200 times smaller than a human hair. The OLEDs can have two or three layers of organic material. In the newest designs, the third layer helps carry electrons from the cathode to the expressive layer.

With inkjet technology, OLEDs are sprayed on the substrates in the same way that the paint is sprayed on the paper during printing. Inkjet technology greatly reduces the cost of manufacturing of OLEDs and allows them to be printed in movies large enough to be used in building facades or large panels. The OLEDs emit light in a manner similar to LEDs, through a process called eletrofosforescência.

An inkjet printer high precision manufacturing of polymer OLEDs displays. The process works as follows:
1. the battery or power supply of the device containing the OLED, applies a voltage across the OLED; 2. an electric current flows from the cathode to the anode through the organic layers (the electric current is a flow of electrons): cathode electron emissive display of layer provides organic molecules; the anode electron conductive layer removes the organic molecules, this is equivalent to deliver electron holes to the conductive layer; 3. the boundary between the expressive and conductive layers, electrons are electrons holes: when an electron is an electron hole, fills the hole (this electron falls on the energy level of the atom that has lost an electron); When this happens, the electron provides energy in the form of a photon of light; 4. the OLED emits light; 5. the colour of the light depends on the type of organic molecule in expressive layer.

Manufacturers put various kinds of organic films on the same to make OLED displays. The intensity or brightness of the light depends on the amount of electric current applied. The longer the chain, the higher the brightness of light.

The types of molecules used by Kodak’s scientists, in 1987, for the first OLEDs were small organic molecules. Although small molecules emit bright light, scientists had to deposit them on the substrates in vacuum.

Since 1990, researchers have used large polymer molecules to emit light. The manufacture of polymers can be less expensive, and made into large sheets, so are best suited to large screen displays. Is the process similar to printing.

We can split the OLED in 6 types: PMOLEDS (passive matrix)/AMOLEDS (active matrix), transparent OLED, OLED top emission OLED, OLED and White folding. Below the details of each model.

PMOLEDs-Has strips of cathode, anode foil organic layers. The anode strips are arranged at right angles to the cathode strips. The intersections of the cathode to the anode form the pixels where the light is emitted. External electric circuit applies a current to selected strips of anode and cathode, determining which pixels will be turned on and which will remain switched off. Therefore, the brightness of each pixel is proportional to the amount of current applied.

The PMOLEDs are easy to make, but consume more energy than other types of OLED, mainly due to the energy required to power the external circuit. The PMOLEDs are more efficient for texts and icons and more suitable for smaller screens (2 to 3 inches diagonally) as those you find in cell phones, PDAs and MP3 players. Even with the external circuit, passive matrix OLEDs consume less battery power than LCDs that are currently used on these devices.

AMOLEDs-Boast complete layers of cathode and anode organic molecules, but the anode layer overlaps a thin film transistor (TFT) that form an array. TFT structure itself is the electrical circuit that determines which pixels are connected to form an image.

The AMOLEDs consume less power than TFT PMOLEDs because the structure requires less energy than the external circuit, therefore, are efficient for large displays. The AMOLEDs also have faster refresh rates, suitable for video. The AMOLEDs adapt better to computer monitors, big screen TVs and electronic notices or ad panels.

Transparent OLEDs have only transparent components (substrate, cathode and anode) and, when turned off, are up to 85% as transparent as your substrate. When a transparent OLED display is turned on, allows light to pass in both directions. The transparent OLED display can be active or passive matrix. This technology can be used to “heads-up” displays. We can exemplicifar like glasses, contact lenses, glasses, car glass for application in architecture.

Transparent OLEDs are already available on the market for sale.

Top emission OLED The top emission OLEDs have a substrate that can be opaque or reflective. They are best suited for projects with active arrays. Manufacturers can use the top emission OLED displays on smart cards.

Folding OLED The OLEDs have folding substrates made of metal or plastic blades very flexible. The folding OLEDs are very light and durable. The your use in devices such as cell phones and PDAs, you can reduce the breaks, the biggest cause of Returns or repairs. In General, the folding OLED displays can be stitched in fabrics for the manufacture of “smart” clothes, such as external survival with integrated computer chips, cell phone, GPS receiver and OLED display tailored to her. You can do light curtains as illustrated in the photo below.

White OLEDs emit a bright, white, and more uniform and with energy more efficient than that emitted by fluorescent lamps. White OLEDs also have the quality of real colors of incandescent bulbs (100%) of IRC. As OLEDs can be made in large sheets, they can replace the fluorescent lamps that are currently used in homes and buildings. Its use can potentially reduce energy costs with lighting.

The LCD is, currently, the display chosen for small devices and is also popular for large-screen TVs. The normal LEDs form, frequently, the digits in digital watches and other electronic devices. The OLEDs offer many advantages over LCDs and LEDs:
organic plastic layers of OLED are thinner, lightweight and flexible than crystalline layers of LED or LCD; as the layers of light emission of OLED are lighter, OLED substrate can be flexible rather than rigid. The substrates of the OLED DISPLAY can be plastic, unlike the glass used in LEDs and LCDs; the OLEDs are brighter than LEDs. As OLED organic layers are thinner than the inorganic Crystal layers corresponding to an LED, the conductive layers and expressive of the OLED DISPLAY can be superimposed. Similarly, the LEDs and LCDs need support and glass the glass absorbs some light. The OLEDs need no glass; the OLEDs do not require backlight like LCDs. LCDs work by blocking selective areas of backlight to mount the images that you see, while the OLEDs generate their own light. As OLEDs do not require a backlight, they consume much less energy than LCDs (most of the energy goes to the LCD backlight). This is especially important for battery-operated devices such as mobile phones; the OLEDs are easier to produce and can be made in larger sizes. How OLEDs are essentially plastics, can be made in the form of large, thin leaves. It’s much more difficult to grow and distribute with this format so many liquid crystals; the OLEDs have large fields of view, approximately 170 degrees. As the LDCs work blocking the light, they present a natural barrier of viewing angles. The OLEDs produce your own light, therefore, have a greater range of viewing;

However the OLED seems to be the perfect technology for all types of displays, but it also presents some problems: lifetime-while the red and green OLED films feature a long life (10000 to 40000 hours), the blue organic feature a lifetime shorter (only 1000 hours approximately); manufacturing the manufacturing processes are expensive; water can easily damage the OLEDs.

Currently, OLEDs are used in small screen devices such as mobile phones, PDAs and digital cameras. In September of 2004, Sony Corporation announced that it was beginning mass production of OLED screens to your CLIE model PEG-VZ90, a portable personal entertainment device.
Apple promises Oled IPhone in may 2015, Samsung Electronics has developed the first ultra thin tv, using 40-inch OLED screen. Kodak before closing was using OLED displays in various models of digital cameras.

Research and development in the field of OLEDs is advancing rapidly and may lead future applications with “heads-up” displays, automotive panels, displays for paintings, lighting in the home and at the Office, flexible displays, facades … How OLEDs are updated faster than the LCDs (almost a thousand times faster), a device with OLED display you can change the information almost in real time. The video footage can be more realistic and constantly updated. The newspaper of the future may be a OLED display which updates with breaking news (think of the movie “Minority Report” (in English) and as a regular paper, you can bend it when finished reading and shove it in your backpack or Briefcase.